Dear readers and researchers,
We are delighted to present to you the latest edition of the International Journal of African Sciences (IJAS) for the year 2023, bearing witness to our ongoing commitment to push the boundaries of knowledge on a global scale. In this edition, we embark on an intellectual exploration journey, transcending borders and disciplines to unveil a collection of innovative research contributions.
This edition stands as a beacon of excellence, highlighting the dedication and ingenuity of researchers from diverse backgrounds. Each article, from cutting-edge advancements to insightful analyses, encapsulates the essence of groundbreaking research. We express our sincere gratitude to the researchers whose rigorous efforts have enriched the academic landscape.
Alongside the evolving academic landscape, our commitment to providing a platform that fosters collaboration, innovation, and the dissemination of impactful research remains unwavering. In this spirit, we invite institutions, academics, and political and social leaders to join us in supporting the International Journal of African Sciences (IJAS). Together, let’s forge new paths in the relentless pursuit of knowledge and contribute to the global dialogue.
Our gratitude extends to the diligent members of the review committee, whose expertise ensures the highest standards of academic rigor. Their meticulous evaluation has been essential in maintaining the quality and integrity of the journal.
Special mention is reserved for our dedicated editorial team, whose tireless efforts have transformed ideas into this captivating reality. Their commitment to excellence is a driving force behind the success of IJAS.
As we navigate through the ever-expanding frontiers of research, our goal is to cultivate an inclusive and dynamic space for academic exchange. We aspire to be a catalyst for ideas, a place where innovation converges with tradition, and where the global community comes together to shape the future of knowledge.
To our cherished readers and contributors, thank you for being an integral part of this intellectual odyssey. Your ongoing support fuels our commitment to excellence, and we look forward to exploring new horizons together in the upcoming issues.
Welcome to the intellectual journey that is the International Journal of African Sciences (IJAS).
Dr. Joseph-Robert KANIKI WA CILOMBO
Professor and Vice-Dean in charge of Research at the Faculty of Law of the Université Officielle de Mbujimayi/ Congo DR
To download the article, click on the title
RAFANOMEZANTSOA Jean Marie Vianney
Université de Fianarantsoa/Madagascar
Malamba Lubelo Jimmy
Institut Supérieur de Statistiques/ RD Congo
KITIKI KIWAKA Guy Blaise
Université de Kinshasa /RD Congo
ILUNGA LWAMBA Trésor
NYEMBO WA SANGWA Ken
MULEMBA WA KABULO Degaulle
KISALE KYALWE Cloclo
NGOIE-MWANA-MFUMU Laurent Fabrice
Bitye Cynthia Laure
Université de Ngaoundéré/Cameroun
KABWE RWANFIZI Christian
UMBA KONGOLO Nathan
MPOO MOKUBA Alliance David
José NGOY WA NGOY TWITE
Université de Kolwezi/RD Congo
Paul NKOMBUA MUTSHIMUNE
Institut Supérieur Pédagogique de Lukalaba/ RD Congo
Estelle LENGIE KASUMBA
Université de KABINDA/RD Congo
Timothée MULUMBA NTUMBA
Institut Supérieur Pédagogique de Lukalaba/RD Congo
Mwamba Kongolo Coalice
Université de Lubumbashi/RD Congo
MALUMALU MARTIN GAEL
Université de Lubumbashi/RD Congo
Thelesphore Toliton DIKPO
Herbert SINA BIO
Université d’Abomey Calavi/ Bénin